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Journal Article


Lee D, Kim JC, Kim M, Lee H. Sensors (Basel) 2021; 21(9).


(Copyright © 2021, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






Vehicles today have many advanced driver assistance control systems that improve vehicle safety and comfort. With the development of more sophisticated vehicle electronic control and autonomous driving technology, the need and effort to estimate road surface conditions is increasing. In this paper, a real-time road surface classification algorithm, based on a deep neural network, is developed using a database collected through an intelligent tire sensor system with a three-axis accelerometer installed inside the tire. Two representative types of network, fully connected neural network (FCNN) and convolutional neural network (CNN), are learned with each of the three-axis acceleration sensor signals, and their performances were compared to obtain an optimal learning network result. The learning results show that the road surface type can be classified in real-time with sufficient accuracy when the longitudinal and vertical axis acceleration signals are trained with the CNN. In order to improve classification accuracy, a CNN with multiple input that can simultaneously learn 2-axis or 3-axis acceleration signals is suggested. In addition, by analyzing how the accuracy of the network is affected by number of classes and length of input data, which is related to delay of classification, the appropriate network can be selected according to the application. The proposed real-time road surface classification algorithm is expected to be utilized with various vehicle electronic control systems and makes a contribution to improving vehicle performance.

Language: en


deep neural network; intelligent tire; road surface classification


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