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Journal Article


Keo L, Yamakita M. Adv. Robot. 2011; 25(1-2): 1-22.


(Copyright © 2011, Informa - Taylor and Francis Group)






In this paper, we propose a new cooperation control algorithm for stabilizing and trajectory tracking of an unmanned electric bicycle. The simplified model of the bicycle with the balancer is derived from Lagrangian and non-holonomic constraints with respect to translation and rotation relative to the ground plane. The stabilizing control and trajectory control of an autonomous bicycle are derived independently based on the simplified model. The balancing control is derived based on the output-zeroing controller. The steering and balancer for stabilizing the bicycle are used when the linear velocity is zero or the system starts up. It is shown that a balancing control using both the steering and the balancer has a better performance than conventional ones with only balancer or steering. The trajectory tracking control is derived by an inputoutput linearization approach to track the path in the ground plane. The steering and the back wheel are used to design the trajectory control. The coupling of the steering between the balancing control and the trajectory control are set by weighting gain. The balancing and the trajectory control have been implemented with the real bicycle by using MATLAB XPC-TARGET. An autonomous electric bicycle can be controlled remotely via a host PC. Numerical simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. (C) Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden and The Robotics Society of Japan, 2011

Language: en


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