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Journal Article


Leordeanu M, Paraicu I. Sensors (Basel) 2021; 21(3): e852.


(Copyright © 2021, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)






When driving, people make decisions based on current traffic as well as their desired route. They have a mental map of known routes and are often able to navigate without needing directions. Current published self-driving models improve their performances when using additional GPS information. Here we aim to push forward self-driving research and perform route planning even in the complete absence of GPS at inference time. Our system learns to predict in real-time vehicle's current location and future trajectory, on a known map, given only the raw video stream and the final destination. Trajectories consist of instant steering commands that depend on present traffic, as well as longer-term navigation decisions towards a specific destination. Along with our novel proposed approach to localization and navigation from visual data, we also introduce a novel large dataset in an urban environment, which consists of video and GPS streams collected with a smartphone while driving. The GPS is automatically processed to obtain supervision labels and to create an analytical representation of the traversed map. In tests, our solution outperforms published state of the art methods on visual localization and steering and provides reliable navigation assistance between any two known locations. We also show that our system can adapt to short and long-term changes in weather conditions or the structure of the urban environment. We make the entire dataset and the code publicly available.

Language: en


autonomous driving; deep learning; autonomous driving dataset; geometric computer vision; localization by image segmentation; self-driving; trajectory prediction; visual localization; visual navigation


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