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Journal Article

Citation

Sahal R, Alsamhi SH, Breslin JG, Ali MI. Sensors (Basel) 2021; 21(3): e694.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2021, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

DOI

10.3390/s21030694

PMID

unavailable

Abstract

Forestry 4.0 is inspired by the Industry 4.0 concept, which plays a vital role in the next industrial generation revolution. It is ushering in a new era for efficient and sustainable forest management. Environmental sustainability and climate change are related challenges to promote sustainable forest management of natural resources. Internet of Forest Things (IoFT) is an emerging technology that helps manage forest sustainability and protect forest from hazards via distributing smart devices for gathering data stream during monitoring and detecting fire. Stream processing is a well-known research area, and recently, it has gained a further significance due to the emergence of IoFT devices. Distributed stream processing platforms have emerged, e.g., Apache Flink, Storm, and Spark, etc. Querying windowing is the heart of any stream-processing platform which splits infinite data stream into chunks of finite data to execute a query. Dynamic query window-based processing can reduce the reporting time in case of missing and delayed events caused by data drift.In this paper, we present a novel dynamic mechanism to recommend the optimal window size and type based on the dynamic context of IoFT application. In particular, we designed a dynamic window selector for stream queries considering input stream data characteristics, application workload and resource constraints to recommend the optimal stream query window configuration. A research gap on the likelihood of adopting smart IoFT devices in environmental sustainability indicates a lack of empirical studies to pursue forest sustainability, i.e., sustainable forestry applications. So, we focus on forest fire management and detection as a use case of Forestry 4.0, one of the dynamic environmental management challenges, i.e., climate change, to deliver sustainable forestry goals. According to the dynamic window selector's experimental results, end-to-end latency time for the reported fire alerts has been reduced by dynamical adaptation of window size with IoFT stream rate changes.


Language: en

Keywords

IoT; forest fire detection; forest sustainability; forestry 4.0; industry 4.0; internet of forestry things; query; stream processing; window size

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