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Journal Article


Law Hum. Behav. 2019; 43(6): vi.


(Copyright © 2019, American Psychological Association)






Reports the retraction of "Correlates of gun violence by criminal justice-involved adolescents" by Lauren Gonzales and Dale E. McNiel (Law and Human Behavior, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 09, 2019, np). Advance online publication. A statement on p. 4 of the article was incorrect. Information regarding gun violence was collected by self-report only and the dichotomized coding scheme did not reference official arrest records. This retraction is at the request of the authors. They have agreed to revise the manuscript and resubmit to the journal for potential acceptance after undergoing the peer-review process. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2019-52366-001.) Objective: This study presents a prospective evaluation of the contribution of criminogenic factors, psychiatric symptomatology, and neighborhood-level factors to risk for gun violence by adolescents with criminal justice involvement. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized (a) elevated psychiatric symptom clusters would be associated with increased risk for gun violence after accounting for criminogenic factors; and (b) neighborhood contextual variables would contribute independently to gun violence risk controlling for criminogenic and psychiatric factors.

METHOD: Data were drawn from the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey et al., 2004), a previously collected, longitudinal evaluation of 1,354 adolescents with felony or weapons-based misdemeanor convictions. Participants were located in Arizona and Pennsylvania and aged 14-18 at baseline. The majority identified as male (86.4%) and Black (41.4%) or Hispanic (33.5%). Participants completed interviews at baseline and follow-up over 7 years. This study drew indicators of criminogenic factors, psychiatric factors, ratings of neighborhood context, and self-reported offending verified with criminal justice records. We used discrete time survival analysis to prospectively evaluate the contribution of independent variables to time to gun violence.

RESULTS: The presence of self-reported threat control override symptoms represented a 56% increase in risk controlling for demographic and criminogenic factors, odds ratio (OR) = 1.56, 95% CI [1.11, 2.18]. Ratings of higher neighborhood gun accessibility represented almost 2.5 times increased risk for gun violence controlling for demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors, OR = 2.48, 95% CI [1.60, 3.85].

CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that consideration of environmental and individual-level factors hold importance for management of community risk and public safety for adolescents with criminal justice involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

Language: en


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