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Moraes JB, Maes M, Roomruangwong C, Bonifacio KL, Barbosa DS, Vargas HO, Anderson G, Kubera M, Carvalho AF, Nunes SOV. Metab. Brain Dis. 2018; 33(4): 1081-1096.


Health Sciences Graduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Av. Robert Koch 60, Londrina, PR, 86035-380, Brazil.


(Copyright © 2018, Holtzbrinck Springer Nature Publishing Group)






Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP); NO metabolites (NOx), paraoxonase 1 activity, zinc, albumin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and -SH groups and computed z-unit weighted composite scores. Physical neglect significantly predicts higher z-unit weighted composite scores of LOOH+SOD, LOOH+SOD+NOx, LOOH+SOD+NOx + MDA and LOOH+SOD+NOx + AOPP. Sexual abuse was associated with a significantly lower composite score of zinc+albumin+SH. Emotional abuse was associated with severity of depression and anxiety, number of depressive and manic episodes, alcohol and hypnotics use, lifetime suicidal behavior and lowered quality of life. Sexual abuse was associated with an increased risk towards BD, but not MDD. ELT, especially physical neglect, may drive increased (nitro-)oxidative stress coupled with lipid and protein oxidation, which - together with emotional abuse - may play a role in severity of illness, lowered quality of life and MDD. ELTs are also associated with the onset of BD, but this link did not appear to be related to activated O&NS pathways. These novel findings deserve confirmation in prospective studies.

Language: en


Antioxidants; Bipolar disorder; Child abuse; Depressive disorder; Oxidative stress; Suicide


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