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Journal Article

Citation

Mazur J, Tabak I, Zawadzka D. School Ment. Health 2017; 9(2): 132-142.

Affiliation

Institute of Applied Psychology, The Maria Grzegorzewska University, Szczęśliwicka 40, 02-353 Warsaw, Poland.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2017, Holtzbrinck Springer Nature Publishing Group)

DOI

10.1007/s12310-017-9206-7

PMID

28572858

PMCID

PMC5429380

Abstract

Ecological studies, when the school is the unit of analysis, may help to design and evaluate school intervention programs. The paper discusses selected contextual determinants of bullying, using data collected in Poland in 2015 and aggregated to school level (4085 students; 70 junior high schools). The main hypothesis is related to the neighborhood social capital as protective factor and the type of community as a modifier. The main dependent variable was the combined index of bullying which included three perspectives (victim, perpetrator, bystander). Student delinquent behavior was taken into account as potential determinant, along with selected characteristics of the school and neighborhood. The analyses were adjusted for the percentage of the surveyed boys. The overall bullying index ranged, depending on the school, from 0.88 to 4.07 points (out of 12 possible); intraclass coefficient ICC = 2.8%. In the entire sample, the main predictors of bullying were student delinquent behaviors as a risk factor and the school social climate as a protective factor (R(2) = 56.3%). The stratification of schools due to their location influences the inference regarding those main determinants. The dominating influence of delinquent behavior is visible only in big cities where bullying index showed the highest dispersion. In smaller towns and rural areas, the neighborhood social capital becomes an important protective factor; highly correlated with the school climate. We can conclude that strong social bonds in the community are supportive for school climate and can reduce the level of bullying at schools.


Language: en

Keywords

Bullying; Delinquent behavior; Ecological analysis; School climate; Urbanization level

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