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Journal Article

Citation

Byun YS, Kim YC. Sensors (Basel) 2016; 16(12): s16122015.

Affiliation

Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. yckim@cbu.ac.kr.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2016, MDPI: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

DOI

10.3390/s16122015

PMID

27916827

Abstract

Real-time continuous localization is a key technology in the development of intelligent transportation systems. In these systems, it is very important to have accurate information about the position and heading angle of the vehicle at all times. The most widely implemented methods for positioning are the global positioning system (GPS), vision-based system, and magnetic marker system. Among these methods, the magnetic marker system is less vulnerable to indoor and outdoor environment conditions; moreover, it requires minimal maintenance expenses. In this paper, we present a position estimation scheme based on magnetic markers and odometry sensors for an all-wheel-steering vehicle. The heading angle of the vehicle is determined by using the position coordinates of the last two detected magnetic markers and odometer data. The instant position and heading angle of the vehicle are integrated with an extended Kalman filter to estimate the continuous position. GPS data with the real-time kinematics mode was obtained to evaluate the performance of the proposed position estimation system. The test results show that the performance of the proposed localization algorithm is accurate (mean error: 3 cm; max error: 9 cm) and reliable under unexpected missing markers or incorrect markers.


Language: en

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