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Journal Article

Citation

Konegger-Kappel S, Prohaska T. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2015; 408(2): 431-440.

Affiliation

Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry, Research Group Analytical Ecogeochemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430, Tulln, Austria, s.konegger-kappel@iaea.org.

Copyright

(Copyright © 2015, Holtzbrinck Springer Nature Publishing Group)

DOI

10.1007/s00216-015-8876-y

PMID

26168968

Abstract

Laser ablation-multi-collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) was optimized and investigated with respect to its performance for determining spatially resolved Pu isotopic signatures within radioactive fuel particle clusters. Fuel particles had been emitted from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) where the 1986 accident occurred and were deposited in the surrounding soil, where weathering processes caused their transformation into radioactive clusters, so-called micro-samples. The size of the investigated micro-samples, which showed surface alpha activities below 40 mBq, ranged from about 200 to 1000 μm. Direct single static point ablations allowed to identify variations of Pu isotopic signatures not only between distinct fuel particle clusters but also within individual clusters. The resolution was limited to 100 to 120 μm as a result of the applied laser ablation spot sizes and the resolving power of the nuclear track radiography methodology that was applied for particle pre-selection. The determined (242)Pu/(239)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios showed a variation from low to high Pu isotope ratios, ranging from 0.007(2) to 0.047(8) for (242)Pu/(239)Pu and from 0.183(13) to 0.577(40) for (240)Pu/(239)Pu. In contrast to other studies, the applied methodology allowed for the first time to display the Pu isotopic distribution in the Chernobyl fallout, which reflects the differences in the spent fuel composition over the reactor core. The measured Pu isotopic signatures are in good agreement with the expected Pu isotopic composition distribution that is typical for a RBMK-1000 reactor, indicating that the analyzed samples are originating from the ill-fated Chernobyl reactor. The average Pu isotope ratios [(240)Pu/(239)Pu = 0.388(86), (242)Pu/(239)Pu = 0.028(11)] that were calculated from all investigated samples (n = 48) correspond well to previously published results of Pu analyses in contaminated samples from the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP [e.g. (240)Pu/(239)Pu = 0.394(2) and (242)Pu/(239)Pu = 0.027(1); Nunnemann et al. (J Alloys Compd 271-273:45-48, 1998)]. Graphical Abstract Evaluation of LA-MC-ICP-MS for spatially resolving ultra-trace Pu isotopic signatures stored in environmental radioactive particles, providing new insights into the Pu isotopic distribution of the Chernobyl reactor core at the time of the accident.


Language: en

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