August 21 - 25, 2000
- Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well Being. 2000. Washington, DC: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (E.30.08 B)
Abstract: This is a planned annual effort to monitor the well being of the nation's children. Developed jointly by the Federal agencies that provide data on children, it presents key indicators of the condition of children, including children's economic security, their health, their behavior and social environment, and their education
- Bulajic-Kopjar M. Environmental factors associated with fall related injuries among elderly people. International Journal for Consumer and Product Safety 1999; 6(4):205-213. (E.55.06 S)
Abstract: This study investigated the environmental factors associated with fall injuries among people aged 65 and older in Norway from 1990-1997. Loss of balance was the most common cause of injury (35%), followed by slipping (21%) and stumbling (16%). The following environmental factors were involved in occurrence of injuries: indoor stairs (7%), doorstep (1%), ladders (1%), bathtub/shower (<1%), floor indoors (16%), icy outdoor surface (13%), other specified factors (40%), unknown (19%). There were significant variations in environmental factors associated with occurrence of injury by age and nature of injury. Commonly targeted home hazards account for a small fraction of injuries. Improvements in home safety are unlikely to result in significant gains in preventing fall injuries among elderly people.
- Rice MR, Alvanos L, Kenney B. Snowmobile injuries and deaths in children: A review of national injury data and state legislation. Pediatrics 2000; 105(3):615-619. (E.60.02 S)
Abstract: This study analyzed 291 pediatric snowmobile related injuries and 75 deaths reported to the Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990-1998. It reviews snowmobile legislation in the states that reported at least 1 death to the CPSC during this time period. The most common sites of injury were the extremities (48.8%) and the head, neck, and face (28.2%). Head and neck injuries were the predominant cause of death (66.7%). Nonfatal injuries most often involved ejection from the snowmobile (26.1%), but striking a stationary object was the most common mechanism in fatal crashes. The review of state legislation revealed that few age restrictions or helmet laws exist. Children as young as 8 years old may legally operate a snowmobile in some states. Often, restrictions do not apply to snowmobile use on private property, where 43% of pediatric snowmobile related injuries occurred. Helmet laws and age restrictions similar to those enacted for motorcycle riders are necessary and appropriate.
- Dinh-Zarr T, DiGuiseppi CG, Heitman E, Roberts I. Interventions for preventing injuries in problem drinkers. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000; 2.
Abstract: Because of the increased risk of injuries associated with problem drinking, the authors conducted this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for problem drinking in preventing injuries. Numerous randomized controlled trials have evaluated a diverse range of interventions to reduce alcohol dependence, abuse, or consumption: pharmacotherapy; individual, couple, and group counseling; exercise; acupuncture; controlled drinking; brief educational interventions; and other in and out-patient therapies and combinations of treatments. Most such trials have measured effects of treatment on alcohol consumption and maintenance of abstinence. Many trials have also evaluated the effects of treatment on a wide variety of negative consequences linked directly or indirectly to drinking. A key finding of the review was that many of the trials reported imprecise effect estimates and often had methodological weaknesses. This review suggests that interventions for problem drinking have the potential to reduce the incidence of injuries and their antecedents, but current data are insufficient to draw firm conclusions.
- Johnson MB, Moore M, Mitchell P, Owen P, Pilby J. Serious and fatal firearm injuries among children and adolescents in Alaska: 1991-1997. Alaska Medicine 2000; 42(1):3-27. (E.96.10 S)
Abstract: This study describes the demographics, causal factors, intent, and incident locations of serious and fatal firearm injuries among children and adolescents in Alaska during 1991-1997. During this period, 222 children and adolescents aged 0-19 were admitted to a hospital for a non-fatal firearm injury, and 165 others received fatal firearm injuries. Of these serious and fatal injuries, 34.9% were determined to be unintentional, 36.4% were suicides or suicide attempts, 23.3% were homicide/assaults, 0.5% were legal intervention, and 4.9% were of unknown intent. Rates of serious and fatal firearm injuries per 100,000 youth ranged from 14 in the Fairbanks North Star Borough and the Kenai Peninsula Borough to 105 in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Region. The statewide average was 27.1/100,000. Many of these children and adolescents who were killed or injured by firearms had easy access to them.
- Verlinden S, Hersen M, Thomas J. Risk factors in school shootings. Clinical Psychology Review 2000; 20(1):3-56. (E.68.02 S)
Abstract: This article reviews nine incidents of multiple victim homicide in American secondary schools and identifies common risk factors. The literature dealing with family, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalities among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.
- Mohr WK. Family violence: Toward more precise and comprehensive knowing. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 1999; 20:305-317. (E.84 S)
Abstract: The absence of scientifically credible information about the nature and extent of family violence is an impediment to effective intervention and prevention efforts. This article discusses the distinctive aspects of this area of inquiry as well as what questions should guide that inquiry. It also proposes a research strategy to investigate family violence that must be implemented before we can hope to design and test relevant interventions that will benefit victims of family violence.
- Barnes SY. Theories of spouse abuse: Relevance to African Americans. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 1999; 20:357-371. (E.82 S)
Abstract: This article reviews several sociocultural theories of spouse abuse. However, their relevance to ethnic people of color, and African Americans in particular, is questionable because of different cultural and historical experiences. It is suggested that the use of unidimensional sociocultural theories may not adequately explain spousal abuse cross culturally. Recommendations are made for the development and testing of multidimensional theoretical frameworks that consider the unique cross-cultural variations related to abusive relationships among ethnic people of color. Additionally, studies that are conducted by culturally competent researchers may better explain cultural similarities and differences regarding spousal abuse and thus ultimately lead to more culturally competent nursing care.
- Muller RT, Goebel-Fabbri AE, Diamond T, Dinklage D. Social support and the relationship between family and community violence exposure and psychopathology among high-risk adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect 2000; 24(4):449-464. (E.80.06 S)
Abstract: This study examined the protective effect of social support in the relationship between exposure to violence and psychopathology. Exposure to violence in the family and exposure to violence in the community were examined separately. Exposure to violence was further divided according to whether violence was experienced as a victim or as a witness. Internalizing and externalizing forms of psychopathology, as well as post-traumatic stress symptomatology were examined. Social support emerged as a protective factor with respect to the maladaptive effects of family violence, experienced as either a victim or as a witness. In contrast, social support did not appear to buffer the maladaptive effects of community violence, regardless of whether violence was experienced as a victim or as a witness. In fact, the relationship between community violence and psychopathology was found to be generally nonsignificant regardless of social support status. These findings suggest that exposure to family violence may affect development differently than does exposure to community violence, allowing social support to effectively buffer the effects of family, but not community violence.
- Portwood SG, Grady MT, Dutton SE. Enhancing law enforcement identification and investigation of child maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect 2000; 24(2):195-207. (E.80.02 S)
Abstract: Data from two independent studies is presented, representing the investigators' ongoing work with faculty from a state criminal justice academy to analyze existing knowledge and skill levels among veteran law enforcement officers and recruits, as well as to enhance future training. Through an anonymous questionnaire, the first study examined officers' perceptions of maltreatment, including those factors that do and do not influence a determination of whether a particular act constitutes child maltreatment and assessments of whether particular acts constitute abuse or neglect. The second study also utilized an anonymous questionnaire to examine officers' knowledge of the developmental strengths and limitations of children relative to their ability to provide accurate information in suspected cases of child maltreatment. As hypothesized, several gaps both in law enforcement officers' knowledge of certain characteristics that can serve to denote a case of maltreatment and their knowledge of fundamental developmental issues and interview techniques that could assist them in the performance of their professional duties are identified. Suggestions for enhanced law enforcement training programs are presented and discussed.
- Tucker JB, Barone JE, Stewart J, Hogan RJ, Sarnelle JA, Blackwood MM. Violence prevention: Reaching adolescents with the message. Pediatric Emergency Care 1999; 15(6):436-439. (E.76 S)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify an effective medium for communicating with adolescents in a large scale, cost-effective violence prevention program. A set of youth violence prevention programs was established at the Stamford Hospital, a level II trauma center. The traveling version of the program was presented to middle school students in 4 parts: a rap music video created by the violence prevention staff; a facilitated discussion about dealing with anger; a video of a trauma resuscitation in the emergency department; and a commercial video of a teenage boy paralyzed after a gunshot wound. A written questionnaire was used to survey the audience 1 month after the program. The survey assessed the respondents' recall of each part of the program and the perceptions of the value of each part in identifying the problem of violence and reducing violent behavior. The highest ratings for retention, problem identification, and impact were given to the commercial video and the rap music video. The trauma resuscitation video and the discussion of anger were ranked as being less effective. The audience seemed to comprehend the main point of the program and ranked the program, as a whole, higher than any of the parts when measured by success at problem identification and impact.
- Glew G, Rivara F, Feudtner C. Bullying: Children hurting children. Pediatrics in Review 2000; 21(6):183-190. (E.80.04 S)
Abstract: This article defines bullying among children and presents it as a major public health issue. It helps health professionals identify children who are bullies and children who are victims of bullying, and gives advice for how to educate parents and children about bullying. It also discusses the possibly consequences of bullying and how to prevent them. A continuing education quiz is included.
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