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June 19-23, 2000





(1) Marsh P, Kendrick D. Near miss and minor injury information - can it be used to plan and evaluate injury prevention programmes? Accident Analysis and Prevention 2000; 32(3):345-354. (E.45.02 S)

: The main focus of this study was to establish whether the circumstances surrounding near miss and minor injuries were similar to those of medically attended injuries for children under age 5 in the home environment. Overall, analysis of data revealed a common pattern of causal factors between the three incident categories. However, there did not appear to be a strong relationship between the occurrence of either near miss and future minor injuries, or near miss and minor injuries and future medically attended injuries.The numbers in this study were too small to see whether specific injury mechanisms predict future injuries of the same type or to make an accurate assessment of the relationship between near miss, minor injuries, and future medically attended injuries.



(2)           Weegels MF, Kanis H. Risk perception in consumer product use. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2000; 32(3):365-370. (E.55 S)

This article explores the significance of risk perception and awareness in understanding and clarifying how and why accidents involving consumer products (such as kitchen utensils, do-it-yourself products, and personal care items) occur. In contrast with what is usually assumed in the literature, the results show that the majority of the subjects had no idea that they were running any risk of injuring themselves while they operated the product. In several cases, the product either behaved in ways not anticipated in the design, or did not appear to be malfunctioning. The implications of these findings for design practice as well as for risk research are discussed.

(3)           Leonard SD, Wogalter MS. What you don't know can hurt you: Household products and events. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2000; 32(3):383-388. (E.55 S)

: Product safety is affected by product design and by the knowledge of the user, either through the user's own background or through instructions and warnings presented with the product. Given adequate knowledge, warnings can serve primarily to remind individuals of the hazards and precautions that can be taken. This study examined people in the US to evaluate their knowledge about the hazards associated with common household products and situations. The results indicated that the respondents were aware of a substantial number of hazards, but their knowledge often did not extend to the specific circumstances that could produce personal injury and property damage. Further, comparisons of cued and non-cued responses suggested some hazards are not well recognized without the cue. The results indicate warnings are needed both as reminders and to provide safety information.



(4)           Jones CS. Epidemiology of personal watercraft related injury on Arkansas waterways, 1994-1997: Identifying priorities for prevention. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2000; 32(3):373-376. (E.60.04 S)

This study was conducted to determine the etiology and the characteristics surrounding personal watercraft (PWC) collisions and injury and to determine countermeasures. Boating accident reports limited to PWCs were obtained from the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission for 1994-1997. Results showed that there were 126 incidents involving 141 vessels and over $156,000 in property damage. Almost 2/5 of PWC users were injured, mainly head trauma and fractures to the lower limbs. There were 5 fatalities. Data suggest that PWC collisions and injuries are increasing, due to increasing use and popularity of these vehicles. Changes in policy, education, and manufacturing standards need to be considered and initiated to provide for safe PWC operation and boating environment.

(5)           Macarthur C, Hu X, Wesson DE, Parkin PC. Risk factors for severe injuries associated with falls from playground equipment. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2000; 32(3):377-382. (E.60.08 S)

A case control study design was used to determine the risk factors for severe injuries associated with falls from playground equipment. Children reporting to the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto because of falls from playground equipment (1995-1996) were studied. Cases were defined as children with a severe injury; controls were children with a minor injury. Data on age, sex, socioeconomic status, prior experience on the equipment, previous playground injury, type of equipment, height of fall, undersurface, nature of injury, body part involved, and disposition were collected. There were no differences between the two groups on age, sex, socioeconomic status, prior exposure to the equipment, or previous playground injury. Extremity fractures predominated in the case group, while facial lacerations predominated in the control group. The median height of fall for cases was 199 cm, compared with 160 cm for controls. The majority of cases and controls fell onto an impact absorbing undersurface. The median depth of impact absorbing undersurface, however, for both case and control injuries was 3 cm - well below the recommended safety standards. Height of fall was an important risk factor for severe injury associated with falls from playground equipment. Above 150 cm, the risk of severe injury was increased 2-fold.



(6)           Getting there safely: How to select a safer car, and how the experts can make auto travel safer. Consumer Reports 2000; 65(4):22-25. (E.52.02 S)

This article offers information on various automotive safety devices available to consumers. It includes an evaluation of safety belts, air bags, and the crashworthiness of various vehicles, as well as examples of safety features to look for when buying a car and an evaluation of the effects of raising the speed limit in several states.

(7)       Peters GA, Peters BJ. Occupant injury protection in automobile collisions. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 1999; 119(4):254-260. (E.E.52.02 S)

Modern technology has produced a variety of safety and health features, devices, and designs intended for better occupant protection in high speed vehicles, Unfortunately, too many vehicle drivers do not understand the reasons for vehicle safety features and fail to take needed action to assure their own safety. For example, one out of three drivers apparently fails to understand the function of head restraints, few understand the "safe zone" posture required for air bags, and many believe safety features should be adjusted only for comfort. These and some other residual injury producing problems in occupant systems are specifically described in this article in order to illustrate what is needed in terms of both design remedies and health promotion activities.



(8)           Harter SL, Taylor TL. Parental alcoholism, child abuse, and adult adjustment. Journal of Substance Abuse 2000; 11(1):31-44. (E.80.02 S)

Parallel findings in the adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) and child abuse literatures are integrated and extended by assessing long term adjustment and childhood histories of parental alcholism and sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in college students. Abuse histories were most strongly related to adult symptom distress and social malajustment. Parental alcoholism had no independent effects when controlling for abuse history. Parental alcoholism interacted with abuse history in relation to social adjustment, exacerbating the effects of emotional abuse. This study adds to a growing literature calling for more complex models of ACOA development that can account for the diversity of this population.

(9)           Single E, Rehm J, Robson L, Truong MV. The relative risks and etiologic fractions of different causes of death and disease attributable to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2000; 162(12):1669-1675. (E.40.02 S)

In 1996 the number of deaths and admissions to hospital in Canada that could be attributed to the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs were estimated from 1992 data. This paper updates these estimates to the year 1995. In 1995, 6,507 deaths and 82,014 hospital admissions were attributed to alcohol; 34,728 deaths and 194,072 hospital admissions were attributed to tobacco; and 805 deaths and 6,940 hospital admissions were attributed to illicit drugs. The use and misuse of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs accounted for 20.0% of deaths, 22.2% of years of potential life lost, and 9.4% of hospital admissions in Canada in 1995.


Family Violence:

(10)       Coker AL, Smith PH, McKeown RE, King MR. Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: Physical, sexual, and psychological battering. American Journal of Public Health 2000; 90(4):553-559. (E.82 S)

This study estimated the frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type (physical, sexual, battering, or emotional abuse) among women seeking primary health care. Of 1401 eligible women surveyed, 772 (55.1%) had experienced some type of intimate partner violence in a current, most recent, or past intimate relationship with a male partner; 20.2% were currently experiencing partner violence. Among those who had experienced partner violence, 77.3% experienced physical or sexual violence, and 22.7% experienced nonphysical abuse. Alcohol and/or drug abuse by the male partner was the strongest correlate of violence. Partner substance abuse and intimate partner violence in the woman's family of origin were strong risk factors for experiencing violence. The authors recommend universal screening for partner violence and interventions by health professionals.


Adolescent Violence:

(11)       Ellickson PL, McGuigan KA. Early predictors of adolescent violence. American Journal of Public Health 2000; 90(4):566-572. (E.80.06 S)

This study sought to identify early predictors of adolescent violence and to assess whether they vary by sex and across different types and levels of violence. Data from a 5 year longitudinal self-report survey of more than 4300 high school seniors and dropouts from California and Oregon were used to regress measures of relational, predatory, and overall violence on predictors measured 5 years earlier. Deviant behavior in grade 7, poor grades, and weak bonds with middle school predicted violent behavior 5 years later. Attending a middle school with comparatively high levels of cigarette and marijuana use was also linked with subsequent violence. Early drug use and peer drug use predicted increased levels of predatory violence but not its simple occurrence. Girls with low self-esteem during early adolescence were more likely to hit others later on; boys who attended multiple elementary schools were also more likely to engage in relational violence. Violence prevention programs for younger adolescents should include efforts to prevent or reduce troublesome behavior in school and poor academic performance. Adolescent girls may also benefit from efforts to raise self-esteem; adolescent boys may need extra training in resisting influences that encourage deviant behavior. Prgams aimed at preventing drug use may yield an added violence reduction bonus.



(12)       Barrios LC, Everett SA, Simon TR, Brener ND. Suicide ideation among US college students. Journal of American College Health 2000; 48(5):229-233. (E.90 S)

The authors used data from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the association between suicide ideation and injury related behaviors among 18-24 year old college students. Students who reported suicide ideation were significantly more likely than students who did not report considering suicide to carry a weapon, engage in a physical fight, boat or swim after drinking alcohol, ride with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, drive after drinking alcohol, and rarely or never use seat belts. Given this clustering of injury related risk behaviors, college prevention programs should aim to reduce risks for injuries comprehensively, rather than addressing each risk behavior separately.

(13)       Cohen EM. Suicidal ideation among adolescents in relation to recalled exposure to violence. Current Psychology 2000; 19(1):46-56. (E.90 S)

This article examines the relationship between direct witnessing of violence and vulnerability to suicide among adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 85 adolescents to assess their levels of exposure to violence, fear of death, and attitudes towards life and death. Those who had been exposed to a high level of violence reported attitudes synonymous with the profile of an individual at risk for suicide (low fear of death, low repulsion to death, and low attraction to life; high replusion to life and high attraction to death).



(14)       SideLines. V.9(3); Spring 2000. Boston, MA: National Youth Sports Safety Foundation, Inc. Cover Story: Safety in youth sports: The role of standards, personal protective equipment, & common sense.

(15)       SafetyBeltSafe News. V.21(3); May 2000. Altadena, Ca: SafetyBeltSafe U.S.A. Cover Story: Safety seat checkup day 2000.

(16)       On The Move With School-Based Mental Health. V.5(1); Spring 2000. Baltimore, MD: Center for School Mental Health Assistance. Cover Story: Risking a future: How do we keep Hispanic youth in school?

(17)       Building Safe Communities. V.3(3); April 2000. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Cover Story: Get ready for May.

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