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June 5-9, 2000
May 27 - June 2, 2000


(1) Frisbee SJ, Hennes H. Adult worn child carriers: A potential risk for injury. Injury Prevention 2000; 6:56-58. (E.55.10 S)

This paper examines and describes injuries associated with adult worn child carriers by reviewing available data from CPSC. Injuries associated with such carriers appear to come from three general sources: product appropriateness and design; product condition; and product use. The authors recommend that health care providers counsel parents in the safe use of these products.

(2) American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Reducing the number of deaths and injuries from residential fires. Pediatrics 2000; 105(6):1355-1357. (E.55.08 S)

This statement reviews important prevention messages and intervention strategies related to residential fires. It also includes recommendations for pediatricians regarding office anticipatory guidance, work in the community, and support of regulation and legislation that could result in a decrease in the number of fire related injuries and deaths to children.

(3) American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury and Poison Prevnention. All terrain vehicle injury prevention: Two-, three-, and four-wheeled unlicensed motor vehicles. Pediatrics 2000; 105(6):1352-1354. (E.60.02 S)

This statement describes the various kinds of motorized cycles and ATVs and outlines the epidemiologic characteristics of deaths and injuries related to their use by children in light of the 1987 consent decrees entered into by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the manufacturers of ATVs. Recommendations are made for public, patient, and parent education by pediatricians; equipment modifications; the use of safety equipment; and the development and improvement of safer off-road trails and responsive emergency medical systems. In addition, the AAP strengthens its recommendation for passage of legislation in all states prohibiting the use of 2 and 4 wheeled off-road vehicles by children younger than 16 years, as well as a ban on the sale of new and used 3 wheeled ATVs, with a recall of all used 3 wheeled ATVs.

(4) American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Research. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status - Research exploring their effects on child health: A subject review. Pediatrics 2000; 105(6):1349-1351. (E.40.08 S)

Data on research participants and populations frequently include race, ethnicity, and gender as categorical variables, with the assumption that these variables exert their effects through innate or genetically determined biologic mechanisms. There is a growing body of research that suggests, however, that these varibles have strong social dimensions that influence health. Socioeconomic status interacts with and confounds analyses of race/ethnicity and gender. The Academy recommends that research studies include race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status as explanatory variables only when data relevant to the underlying social mechanisms have been collected and included in the analysis.

(5) American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Radiology. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse. Pediatrics 2000; 105(6):1345-1348. (E.80.02.04 S)

The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse occurs, as well as to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse is based on both advances in imaging technology, as well as a better understanding of the subject based on scientific data obtained during the past 10 years. The initial recommendation was published in Pediatrics, 1991; 87: 262-264.

(6)   Winston FK, Durbin DR, Kallan MJ, Moll EK. The danger of premature graduation to seat belts for young children. Pediatrics 2000; 105(6):1179-1183. (E.80.06 S)

This study was intended to quantify the nature and risk of significant injury associated with premature graduation to seat belts in preschool aged children. Amond children studied, 98% were restrained, but nearly 40% of these children were restrained in seat belts, rather than child safety seats. Results showed that, compared with children in child safety seats, children in seat belts were more likely to suffer a significant injury. Children in seat belts were at particular risk of significant head injury.

(7) Arsenault L, Tremblay RE, Boulerice B, Seguin JR, Saucier JF. Minor physical anomalies and family adversity as risk factors for violent delinquency in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry 2000; 157(6):917-923. (E.52.02 S)

Minor physical anomalies are considered indicators of disruption in fetal development. They have been found to predict behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders. This study examined the extent to which minor physical anomalies, family adversity, and their interaction predict violent and nonviolent delinquency in adolescence. Adolescent boys with higher counts of anomalies, and especially with anomalies of the mouth, were found to be most at risk for violent delinquency. Various explanations for these findings are discussed.

(8) Family Health Outcomes Project, University of California, San Francisco and California Center for Childhood Injury Prevention. Childhood Injury Prevention: Moving from Data to Interventions to Evaluations. Training held May 10, 2000 Sacramento, CA. (E.19.04 B)

This binder contains materials from the Family Health Outcomes Project training sessions conducted in Sacramento, CA on May 10, 2000. Subjects covered include: Key elements of injury surveillance; Interpreting and presenting injury data; California Children and Youth Injury Hot Spots Study; and Data to program development to evaluation. Also included are tables listing injury episodes by county, 1995-1997.

(9) Mbamalu D, Banerjee A, Shankar A, Grant D. Air bag associated fatal intra-abdominal injury. Injury: The International Journal of the Care of the Injured 2000; 31:121-122. (52.02.04 S)

This brief report describes a case of fatality associated with air bag deployment. The victim was a 79 year old female, 5 feet 4 inches in height, who was not wearing a seat belt at the time of the crash.

(10) Rivara FP, Koepsell TD, Grossman DC, Mock C. Effectiveness of automatic shoulder belt systems in motor vehicle crashes. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 283(21):2826-2828. (E.52.02.02 S)

This study examined the effectiveness of automatic shoulder belts when used with and without a manual lap belt. The results indicate that improperly used automatic restraint systems may be less effective than properly used systems and are associated with an increased risk of serious chest and abdominal injuries. Given the continued widespread use of these automatic systems, educational programs may be warranted.

(11) Skiba RJ, Peterson RL. School discipline at a crossroads: From zero tolerance to early response. Exceptional Children 2000; 66(3):335-346. (E.68.02 S)

There is little evidence that zero tolerance procedures have increased school safety or improved student behavior. A preventive, early response disciplinary model increases the range of effective options for addressing violence and disruption across both general and special education.

(12) Sprague J, Walker H. Early identification and intervention for youth with antisocial and violent behavior. Exceptional Children 2000; 66(3):367-379. (E.68.02 S)

This article addresses the growing problem of antisocial behavior in schools and its impact on safety, effectiveness, and ecology. It also describes the factors leading to the development of antisocial behavior.

(13) Barras B, Lyman SA. Silence of the lambs: How can we get students to report pending violence? Education 2000; 120(3):495-502. (E.68.02 S)

This article reviews a number of the most recent school violence episodes. Some suggestions are made of how school administrators can encourage students to report threatened violence.

(14) Dwyer KP, Osher D, Hoffman CC. Creating responsive schools: Conceptualizing early warning, timely response. Exceptional Children 2000; 66(3):347-365. (E.68.02 S)

"Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools" is discussed. It asserts that schools can prevent violence and its preceding behaviors by providing a supportive schoolwide climate and responding to at-risk students' academic and behavioral problems.

(15) Hathaway J, Silverman J, Aynalem G, Mucci L, Brooks D, and Intimate Violence Prevention Team DoVPNC. Use of medical care, police assistance, and restraining orders by women reporting intimate partner violence - Massachusetts, 1996-1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2000; 49(22):485-488. (E.82.02 S)

The Woman Abuse Tracking in Clinics and Hospitals (WATCH) Project at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health analyzed data from the 1996 and 1997 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in Massachusetts to: estimate the percentage of women aged 18-59 years experiencing intimate partner violence who used medical care, police assistance, and restraining orders during the preceding 5 years; determine where women experiencing IPV went for medical care; and examine the overlap in use of these three services. This report describes the results of these analyses, which indicate that a higher percentage of women use police assistance rather than obtain a restraining order or seek medical care.

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