May 22-26, 2000
(1) Yokota F, Thompson KM.
Violence in G-rated animated films. Journal of the American Medical Association
Abstract: The authors reviewed violence content in all 74 G-rated
animated feature films released in theaters between 1937 and 1999, recorded in
English, and available for review on videocassette in the United States before
September 1999. All 74 films contained at least 1 act of violence. Analysis of
time trends showed a statistically significant increase in the duration of
violence in the films with time. Characters portrayed as "bad" were
much more likely to die of an injury than other characters. A majority of the
violence (55%) was associated with good or neutral characters dueling with bad
characters, and characters used a wide range of weapons in violent acts.
Physicians and parents should not overlook videocassettes as a source of
exposure to violence for young children.
(2) Gilligan J. Violence in
public health and preventive medicine. The Lancet 2000; 355:1802-1804.
Abstract: The author asserts that violent behavior is caused by the
experience of overwhelming shame and humiliation. The likelihood that violence
prone individuals will be so overwhelmed by their feelings of shame as to become
violent is strongly influenced by whether or not they possess internal sources
of pride and self esteem, such as education, or external sources of esteem from
others, such as wealth or other sources of high social status. He believes that
in order to stop violence, we must replace the moral and legal approach with
the approaches of public health and preventive medicine, by cleaning up the
social and economic systems and reducing the huge inequities in income and
wealth between rich and poor.
(3) Pless B. The non-existent
role of injury prevention in medical practice. The Lancet 2000; 355:1807-1812.
Abstract: Pediatric research shows that couseling or education alone
does not change behaviors sufficiently to prevent injuries, although when
combined with free or subsidized safety devices, the results are somewhat
better. This is partly explained by the fact that most physicians have little
training as health educators and little financial incentive for succeeding in
this area. The author believes that the main problem, however, is that few
physicians view injuries as a serious health problem. This attitude will need
to be changed before office based counseling can be effective in preventing
(4) OTS Super Summit 2000. Sacramento, CA.: California Office of
Abstract: This publication contains the speakers' handouts from the OTS
conference held in San Diego, CA April 24-27, 2000. Workshop topics included
pedestrian safety, EMS, older persons, child passenger safety, underage drinking,
youth alcohol programs, traffic calming, felony DUI, and safety leadership
(5) Childs HW, Hayslip B,
Radika LM, Reinberg JA. Young and middle aged adults' perceptions of elder
abuse. The Gerontologist 2000; 40(1):75-85.
Abstract: This study was designed to examine the impact of age and
gender of the respondent, gender and age of the victim or perpetrator, and
history of experienced or participatory violence on the perceptions of elder
abuse. Results indicate that middle aged respondents viewed psychological
behaviors more harshly than did younger respondents and that both middle aged
women and young men were less tolerant of middle aged perpetrators. Although
history of participatory violence toward older persons was predictive of perceptions
of elder abuse as it interacted with respondent age, history of experienced
abuse was not predictive. These data support a view of elder abuse that
emphasizes its relativistic nature, wherein perceptions of elder abuse depend
on both the characteristics of the perceiver and the victim and perpetrator
(6) Wagner BM, Aiken C,
Mullaley PM, Tobin JJ. Parents' reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2000;
Abstract: This study is an initial investigationof parents' emotional
and behavioral responses to adolescents' suicide attempts. Feelings of caring,
sadness, and anxiety increased from before the attempt to the point of
discovery, and for mothers they remained higher throughout the following day.
Hostile feelings were present in approximately 50% of mothers across the time
points, however, upon discovering the suicide attempt, parents were less likely
to verbalize hostility than they were to verbalize support and to be careful
what they said. The authors discuss the clinical implications of these
(7) Andrews B, Brewin CR,
Rose S, Kirk M. Predicting PTSD symptoms in victims of violent crime: The role
of shame, anger, and childhood abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2000;
Abstract: This study examines the role of cognitive-affective appraisals
and childhood abuse as predictors of crime related posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Victims of violent crime were interviewed within 1
month postcrime and 6 months later. When all variables were considered
together, shame and anger with others were the only independent predictors of
PTSD symptoms at 1 month, and shame was the only independent predictor of PTSD
at 6 months.
(8) Murphy JM. Pediatric
occupant car safety: Clinical implications based on recent literature.
Pediatric Nursing 1999; 25(2):137-148.
Abstract: The author conducted a review of pediatric literature from
1989 to 1997 and summarized studies on the correct use, incorrect use, and
non-use of child safety restraint devices; injury patterns to children as
occupants of motor vehicles; transporting children with special needs; lethal
air bag injuries; and injury prevention educational programs.
(9) Anderson CA, Dill KE.
Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory
and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2000; 78(4):772-790.
Abstract: Two studies examined violent video game effects on aggression
related variables. Study 1 found that real life violent video game play was
positively related to aggressive behavior and delinquency. The relation was
stronger for individuals who are characteristically aggressive and for men.
Academic achievement was negatively related to overall amount of time spent
playing video games. In Study 2, laboratory exposure to a graphically violent
video game increased aggressive thoughts and behaviors. In both studies, men
had a more hostile view of the world than did women. The results of both studies
are consistent with the General Affective Aggression Model, which predicts that
exposure to violent video games will increase aggressive behavior in both the
short term (e.g., laboratory aggression) and the long term (e.g., delinquency)
(10) Markward M, Dozier C,
Hooks K, Markward N. Culture and the intergenerational transmission of
substance abuse, woman abuse, and child abuse: A diathesis-stress perspective.
Children and Youth Services Review 2000; 22(3/4):237-250.
Abstract: This study focuses on culture as moderating the transmission
of substance abuse and spouse abuse to impact child well-being in families
across generations. The authors propose that it is the interaction between
particular internal factors, such as biochemical, genetic, and/or psychosocial
factors, and external factors that is critical in understanding
intergenerational transmission. They suggest a nonlinear dynamic perspective on
intergenerational transmission that maintains a presumption of cultural and
ethnic "environment" distinctly interacting with genetics and
physiology to produce self-reinforcing behaviors that may be passed from one
generation to another.
(11) Jeavons S. Predicting who
suffers psychological trauma in the first year after a road accident. Behaviour
Research and Therapy 2000; 38:499-508.
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Abstract: This study followed a cohort of consecutive road accident
victims for one year, assessing them soon after the accident and 3, 6, and 12
months later. The aim was to identify demographic, accident, and subjective reality
variables that could predict who was likely to suffer psychological disorder in
the future. Results showed that at different time periods, between 12% and 77%
of variance in trauma measures could be predicted. Severity of injury was a
strong predictor, long after the accident.