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May 22-26, 2000


(1)     Yokota F, Thompson KM. Violence in G-rated animated films. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 283(20):2716-2720.

Abstract: The authors reviewed violence content in all 74 G-rated animated feature films released in theaters between 1937 and 1999, recorded in English, and available for review on videocassette in the United States before September 1999. All 74 films contained at least 1 act of violence. Analysis of time trends showed a statistically significant increase in the duration of violence in the films with time. Characters portrayed as "bad" were much more likely to die of an injury than other characters. A majority of the violence (55%) was associated with good or neutral characters dueling with bad characters, and characters used a wide range of weapons in violent acts. Physicians and parents should not overlook videocassettes as a source of exposure to violence for young children.

(2)     Gilligan J. Violence in public health and preventive medicine. The Lancet 2000; 355:1802-1804.

Abstract: The author asserts that violent behavior is caused by the experience of overwhelming shame and humiliation. The likelihood that violence prone individuals will be so overwhelmed by their feelings of shame as to become violent is strongly influenced by whether or not they possess internal sources of pride and self esteem, such as education, or external sources of esteem from others, such as wealth or other sources of high social status. He believes that in order to stop violence, we must replace the moral and legal approach with the approaches of public health and preventive medicine, by cleaning up the social and economic systems and reducing the huge inequities in income and wealth between rich and poor.

(3)     Pless B. The non-existent role of injury prevention in medical practice. The Lancet 2000; 355:1807-1812.

Abstract: Pediatric research shows that couseling or education alone does not change behaviors sufficiently to prevent injuries, although when combined with free or subsidized safety devices, the results are somewhat better. This is partly explained by the fact that most physicians have little training as health educators and little financial incentive for succeeding in this area. The author believes that the main problem, however, is that few physicians view injuries as a serious health problem. This attitude will need to be changed before office based counseling can be effective in preventing injuries.

(4)      OTS Super Summit 2000. Sacramento, CA.: California Office of Traffic Safety.

Abstract: This publication contains the speakers' handouts from the OTS conference held in San Diego, CA April 24-27, 2000. Workshop topics included pedestrian safety, EMS, older persons, child passenger safety, underage drinking, youth alcohol programs, traffic calming, felony DUI, and safety leadership programs.

(5)     Childs HW, Hayslip B, Radika LM, Reinberg JA. Young and middle aged adults' perceptions of elder abuse. The Gerontologist 2000; 40(1):75-85.

Abstract: This study was designed to examine the impact of age and gender of the respondent, gender and age of the victim or perpetrator, and history of experienced or participatory violence on the perceptions of elder abuse. Results indicate that middle aged respondents viewed psychological behaviors more harshly than did younger respondents and that both middle aged women and young men were less tolerant of middle aged perpetrators. Although history of participatory violence toward older persons was predictive of perceptions of elder abuse as it interacted with respondent age, history of experienced abuse was not predictive. These data support a view of elder abuse that emphasizes its relativistic nature, wherein perceptions of elder abuse depend on both the characteristics of the perceiver and the victim and perpetrator variables.

(6)     Wagner BM, Aiken C, Mullaley PM, Tobin JJ. Parents' reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2000; 39(4):429-436.

Abstract: This study is an initial investigationof parents' emotional and behavioral responses to adolescents' suicide attempts. Feelings of caring, sadness, and anxiety increased from before the attempt to the point of discovery, and for mothers they remained higher throughout the following day. Hostile feelings were present in approximately 50% of mothers across the time points, however, upon discovering the suicide attempt, parents were less likely to verbalize hostility than they were to verbalize support and to be careful what they said. The authors discuss the clinical implications of these findings.

(7)     Andrews B, Brewin CR, Rose S, Kirk M. Predicting PTSD symptoms in victims of violent crime: The role of shame, anger, and childhood abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2000; 109(1):69-73.

Abstract: This study examines the role of cognitive-affective appraisals and childhood abuse as predictors of crime related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Victims of violent crime were interviewed within 1 month postcrime and 6 months later. When all variables were considered together, shame and anger with others were the only independent predictors of PTSD symptoms at 1 month, and shame was the only independent predictor of PTSD at 6 months.

(8)     Murphy JM. Pediatric occupant car safety: Clinical implications based on recent literature. Pediatric Nursing 1999; 25(2):137-148.

Abstract: The author conducted a review of pediatric literature from 1989 to 1997 and summarized studies on the correct use, incorrect use, and non-use of child safety restraint devices; injury patterns to children as occupants of motor vehicles; transporting children with special needs; lethal air bag injuries; and injury prevention educational programs.

(9)     Anderson CA, Dill KE. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2000; 78(4):772-790.

Abstract: Two studies examined violent video game effects on aggression related variables. Study 1 found that real life violent video game play was positively related to aggressive behavior and delinquency. The relation was stronger for individuals who are characteristically aggressive and for men. Academic achievement was negatively related to overall amount of time spent playing video games. In Study 2, laboratory exposure to a graphically violent video game increased aggressive thoughts and behaviors. In both studies, men had a more hostile view of the world than did women. The results of both studies are consistent with the General Affective Aggression Model, which predicts that exposure to violent video games will increase aggressive behavior in both the short term (e.g., laboratory aggression) and the long term (e.g., delinquency)

(10) Markward M, Dozier C, Hooks K, Markward N. Culture and the intergenerational transmission of substance abuse, woman abuse, and child abuse: A diathesis-stress perspective. Children and Youth Services Review 2000; 22(3/4):237-250.

Abstract: This study focuses on culture as moderating the transmission of substance abuse and spouse abuse to impact child well-being in families across generations. The authors propose that it is the interaction between particular internal factors, such as biochemical, genetic, and/or psychosocial factors, and external factors that is critical in understanding intergenerational transmission. They suggest a nonlinear dynamic perspective on intergenerational transmission that maintains a presumption of cultural and ethnic "environment" distinctly interacting with genetics and physiology to produce self-reinforcing behaviors that may be passed from one generation to another.

(11) Jeavons S. Predicting who suffers psychological trauma in the first year after a road accident. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2000; 38:499-508.

Abstract: This study followed a cohort of consecutive road accident victims for one year, assessing them soon after the accident and 3, 6, and 12 months later. The aim was to identify demographic, accident, and subjective reality variables that could predict who was likely to suffer psychological disorder in the future. Results showed that at different time periods, between 12% and 77% of variance in trauma measures could be predicted. Severity of injury was a strong predictor, long after the accident.

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